In recent years, e-cigarettes have developed rapidly. The report of the Seventh Conference of the Parties to the World Health Organization’s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) indicated that the global expenditure on e-cigarettes in 2015 was 10 billion US dollars; among which the United States and the United Kingdom respectively 56%, 12%, China, France, Germany, Italy and Poland 21% (each country contributes 3%-5%). Electronic cigarettes have become the focus and development hotspot of international tobacco.
Recently, e-cigarettes have faced the problem of harm and attracting minors to smoke. Concerning the harm of electronic cigarettes, there are rumors that it is more harmful than cigarettes, and some say that it is less harmful than cigarettes. Electronic cigarettes and heat-not-burn tobacco products are most worthy of attention because of their safety features and the chemical carcinogens produced by the smoke. Various studies have shown that it is far safer than conventional cigarettes. In terms of emissions, e-cigarettes are 8% of the emissions of traditional cigarettes, while heat-not-burn tobacco products are 5% of those of traditional cigarettes. From the perspective of cytotoxicity, e-cigarettes are only 9% of traditional cigarettes, and heat-not-burn tobacco products are only 14% of traditional cigarettes. As a result, the release of harmful components of e-cigarettes is lower than that of traditional cigarettes, but long-term use of e-cigarettes can also lead to nicotine addiction and a series of health problems.
Before discussing the harm of electronic cigarettes, let’s analyze the influence of electronic cigarette composition, working principle, temperature control heating wire material and atomization temperature on the release of electronic cigarette aerosol.
The composition of electronic cigarette oil
The commonly used smoking substances for e-cigarette oil are: a mixture of natural glycerin VG (glycerol) and PG (propylene glycol), which generally account for more than 90% (mass percentage) of the e-liquid, and the rest are nicotine (nicotine), edible Fragrance (fragrance ingredient), water, ethanol and other ingredients.
VG glycerin, which is glycerol. According to Baidu Encyclopedia, the industrial production methods of glycerin are divided into two categories: natural glycerin and synthetic glycerin: the method using natural oil as raw material, the glycerin obtained is called natural glycerin; the synthesis method using propylene as raw material, the obtained glycerin is called synthetic glycerin. Natural glycerin, all recovered and purified from the by-products of animal and vegetable fat soaps, has polyol properties and contains esters, glucose, and other reducing sugars. It is a sweetener and humectant commonly used in the food processing industry. In sports food and milk replacer, it makes the food smooth and delicious; Synthetic glycerin, the various ways of synthesizing glycerol from propylene can be classified into two categories, namely chlorination and oxidation, which are usually used in industry. According to research, e-cigarettes generally use natural glycerin.
PG Propylene Glycol is a colorless, odorless, viscous liquid that is widely used as an additive in food, medicine and cosmetics due to its moisturizing, antifreeze, lubricating and good solubility properties. At the same time, PG also has a good atomization effect, and is often used as the main atomizer in e-cigarette liquids.
Flavorings, commonly used in e-cigarettes, are food-grade, meaning they are commonly consumed but not inhaled. That is, “existing data are related to the oral cavity, but there are huge data gaps”. Surprisingly, Professor Richie’s research shows that not all fragrances lead to a reduction in the number of free radicals in the steam. Professor Richie suspects that some spices are less harmful to the human body than others. Although e-cigarettes are also found to be harmful to health, they will not be withdrawn from the market, after all, they are less harmful than tobacco cigarettes.
Nicotine, also known as nicotine, has a molecular formula of C10H14N2 and a relative molecular mass of about 162. It is an alkaloid that exists widely in plants and is addictive and toxic. It can be said that nicotine is the root cause of smoking addiction. Usually nicotine salts are made by reacting nicotine with organic acids, so that the respiratory tract is not directly exposed to nicotine, thereby reducing the so-called irritation. At the same time avoiding the tar and carcinogens that traditional cigarettes bring, nicotine salt has a higher nicotine strength than other e-liquids due to its smoothness, and the absorption rate is much faster than nicotine.
How do electronic cigarettes produce smoke (how it works)
Go to the MCU, wake up the MCU, MCU software settings, turn on the driving MOS tube (turn on the power switch), let the power of the 9 battery pass through the 11 thimble in the picture, all the way to the 7 atomizing core, and the heating wire in the atomizing core is energized Converting electrical energy into heat energy, the temperature reaches the boiling point of 6 e-liquid, and the e-liquid will produce smoke when it boils. The relationship between the boiling point of e-liquid components and the atomization temperature of the resistance value of the heating wire
The effect of heating wire on the release of e-liquid components At present, the mainstream temperature-controlled electronic cigarette products on the market generally support titanium, nickel, and stainless steel heating wires. Different atomization temperatures and types of heating filaments will inevitably have a direct impact on the suction quality and sensory experience. According to the academic research of China Tobacco, using the comprehensive test platform of electronic cigarettes, the electronic cigarettes assembled with Ti, Ni200 and SS316 heating wire with the same static initial resistance value were used as the research objects. Changes in the release of nicotine, propylene glycol, and glycerol (glycerol) in smoke aerosols. The research results show that the dynamic component release of the three heating wires has a strong positive correlation with the working temperature; at the same atomization temperature, using Ni200 as the heating wire, the release of nicotine, propylene glycol and triol of the electronic cigarette aerosol is The largest; the release rate of nicotine is the fastest between the atomization temperature of 220-240°C, and the relative release of glycerol is higher than that of propylene glycol when the atomization temperature rises to 260°C. It can be seen that different heating wires and different atomization temperature ranges will release aerosols with different tastes. The formula of e-cigarette liquid is the core that affects the smoking quality and sensory experience, and “temperature control” is a necessary guarantee.
In the electronic cigarette, the “heating wire” is an important part of the atomizing core, which is responsible for heating and evaporating the e-liquid, thereby generating mist. Heating wire is also called “resistance wire”, which is actually metal wire and alloy wire, just like “electric lamp” and “electric furnace wire”, the current passing through the coil made by the heating wire will generate heat. The resistance C of the metal itself is not fixed forever, it will change with the change of temperature. At present, the temperature control technology of electronic cigarettes realizes the temperature control function based on this characteristic of metal. For example: the resistance of the heating wire at room temperature is 0.1Ω. After power-on, as the temperature increases, if it reaches 100°C, the resistance changes to 0.13Ω, and at 200°C, it becomes 0.15Ω. At 300°C, it becomes 0.19Ω. According to this resistance change law, the chip will calculate the temperature of the heating coil. And this resistance change law is “TCR” temperature resistance change coefficient.
The “TCR” value of each material is different, so if you use coils of different materials, the host’s chip must have TCR data corresponding to the material, in order to obtain the change of the coil according to the initial resistance through the conversion of the coefficient. The temperature corresponding to the resistance value.
The boiling points of the components in the e-liquid are: PG propylene glycol 188.2°C, VG glycerol (glycerol) boiling point 290.9°C, nicotine 247°C, general edible spices boiling point 120-180°C, general PG propylene glycol The boiling point of e-liquid with a ratio of 50% and 50% VG glycerol is around 250°C.
Another feature of the temperature control is that it will not burn the cotton. Most chips have a “dry burning protection” function in the temperature control mode to prevent the burning of the cotton from producing a sticky smell in the absence of e-liquid. The principle is very simple. It is achieved by the speed of resistance change of the temperature control coil. In addition to producing smoke, the e-liquid also cools the coil. It is also set to 200°C. Assuming that it takes 1 second for the coil to reach the resistance value corresponding to 200°C when the cotton has e-liquid, if the chip detects that the coil reaches the resistance value within 0.1 seconds, it will be determined as Dry burning, because of the lack of cooling of the e-liquid, the temperature of the coil will rise faster.
The taste difference of different temperature control heating wires
In the case of self-made atomizing cores, the taste and taste of Ni 200 are lighter and softer. The temperature-controlled taste of the titanium wire is richer in the details of the taste. The temperature control effect of stainless steel wire is similar to that of titanium wire, except that the taste is mixed with a metal taste, which may be the special taste of stainless steel after heating.
The significance of temperature control personally believes that there are two main aspects: health problems and improving the experience of electronic cigarettes. Before many “institutions” criticized e-cigarettes for health problems, and they could not produce any exact authoritative test results, so the “high temperature” of e-cigarette heating wires became one of the concerns of outsiders about e-cigarettes. Although there is no exact test result, excessive temperature does cause damage to e-liquid. How many degrees does the coil have when the electronic cigarette is working? Under normal circumstances, the limit of e-cigarette heating wire will not exceed 300-400°C, while the temperature of the lit cigarette can reach 800°C. Although this data is not authoritative and accurate, it is an indisputable fact that high temperature is harmful, and too high temperature can easily burn the atomizing core. Since the temperature control can limit the temperature of the heating wire, it will prevent the high temperature from destroying the taste of some flavoring ingredients when heating the e-liquid.
Will the temperature control heating wire of electronic cigarette bring health problems?
Some media say that e-cigarettes will produce harmful substances when heated to high temperatures. Will they produce harmful substances? According to the theory of physics, the change from liquid to gas is a physical change and does not produce new substances. But from a chemical perspective, organic matter will undergo fission reaction at high temperature, which is a chemical change and will produce new substances. First, we need to understand the cracking reaction temperature:
The temperature control limit of the electronic cigarette heating wire will not exceed 300°C-400°C. Therefore, it is considered that the temperature of the resistance wire is far from the temperature that cracks the organic matter, and new substances will not be produced, at least the amount will not be too large. many. However, some temperature control boxes on the market (which can control the temperature of the heating wire of the electronic cigarette vaporizer) can indeed control the temperature to above 400°C. Studies have shown that setting e-liquid at 400 degrees:
1. Products of VG and PG at high temperature, wherein the cracking experiments of VG and PG are carried out for 5 minutes at different temperatures and different nitrogen and oxygen contents. As shown in the figure:
2. We usually inhale electronic cigarettes in the air environment, the oxygen content in the air is 21%, and the nitrogen content is 78%. It can be seen that under the condition of 400 degrees, the aldehydes produced are still relatively high. (But it should be noted that the pyrolysis time of this experiment is 5 minutes, and the time to smoke an electronic cigarette is only a few seconds.)
3. Products of edible flavors at high temperature: Many food productions need to add flavors and then process at high temperature, such as baked biscuits, cakes, and cigarettes, so I think this is not the main problem.
4. The product of nicotine at high temperature: the temperature of the electronic cigarette temperature control heating wire is between 300-400 degrees, and the combustion temperature of the cigarette is 800-900 degrees. According to the pyrolysis reaction temperature, traditional cigarettes have reached the temperature range of the pyrolysis reaction. It can be seen that the harmful substances produced are greater than electronic cigarettes.
The chemical cracking reaction occurs under the high temperature combustion of traditional cigarettes. There are more than 7,000 chemical components in the smoke, 93 of which are clearly toxic substances, and 78 are clearly carcinogens (such as: nitrosamines, benzopyrenes, and various radioisotopes)
Therefore, both electronic cigarettes and cigarettes are harmful to health. Recommendation: Never smokers and minors under the age of 18, do not take the first puff of cigarettes in life.
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